Research Papers
Digital Art:

Pattern as Process (3,000 words) – by Gail Kenning
Coming Soon

Practice-led research (3,000 words) – by Gail Kenning
Coming Soon

Exploring Hybrid Aesthetics (3,000 words) – by Gail Kenning
Coming Soon

Media and Public Communication:

New Media: How Web 2.0 is Changing the World
(7,000 words) – by Jim Macnamara FREE


The term ‘new media’ is on everyone’s lips, but many are not sure exactly what it means. And few, even many in the communication field, understand the substantial changes that Web 2.0 type applications are bringing and will increasingly bring. This paper provides a detailed introduction to and explanation of new media shaping the communication environment and how they will change the media, business and public relations. It includes substantial references and a list of useful and interesting Web sites.
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Media Effects: A Review of 50 Years of Research
(7,000 words) – by Jim Macnamara FREE


The media has been credited with and accused of creating significant effects on audiences from generating demand for products and services to inciting violence, racism and sexism. Despite decades of research, governments, social policy makers and communication practitioners continue to misunderstand the effects of media and communication. This paper reviews 50 years of research that should be noted by all users and students of media.

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Media Content Analysis: Uses, Benefits and Best Practice Methodology FREE
(10,000 words) – by Jim Macnamara

Media content analysis is a growing research methodology, used to study media portrayals of violence, gender, race and social issues and also to evaluate public relations campaigns. But media analysis is often done poorly with small samples, confusion over quantitative and qualitative approaches and an ongoing argument over whether studying media content really proves anything. This in-depth paper outlines the history, uses, key benefits and key methodological steps of content analysis and shows that it is an important non-intrusive research tool.

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PR Impact on the Media
(4,500 words) – by Jim Macnamara FREE


Journalists downplay the impact of public relations on their news selection and content, while PR practitioners claim major impact for their clients. What is the truth? Who is really setting the media agenda and writing the news? Research presented in this paper will shock some and is a timely review of changes in how media operate in contemporary societies.

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PR Metrics: How to Measure Public Relations and Corporate Communication
(24,000 words) – by Jim Macnamara AUD$20*


Most of what you need to know about measuring and evaluating public relations is contained in this 50 page paper which is the measurement chapter from Jim Macnamara’s Public Relations Handbook (5th ed.). It outlines international Best Practice approaches and discusses all key methodologies including secondary research, case studies, pre-testing, Web statistics, media content analysis, focus groups, surveys and more. A feature is that it outlines low-cost and even no-cost methods, as well as sophisticated research for showing the value and ROI of PR and corporate communication.

“Macnamara's chapter ‘Research for Planning and Evaluation’ is one of the most comprehensive guides to measurement ever written.”
Katie Paine review
The Measurement Standard (USA), Vol. 4, No. 6, Sept. 26, 2005
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Advertising Values to Measure PR: Why They Are Invalid
(3,200 words) – by Jim Macnamara FREE


Public relations practitioners worldwide continue to measure the so-called value of editorial publicity using Advertising Value Equivalents (AVEs), also referred to as Equivalent Advertising Values (EAVs). Some go further and apply multipliers to advertising rates based on an assumption that PR is more credible than advertising (called ‘credibility multipliers’). But the method has been widely criticised and shown to be invalid by research. This paper reviews literature, research and arguments on ‘ad equivalency’ and presents a critical analysis.

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The Fork in the Road of Media and Communication Theory and Practice
(4,000 words) – by Jim Macnamara FREE

This paper presented to the closing session of the 2006 Summit of Measurement in Portsmouth, New Hampshire titled ‘Where have we been: Where are we going?” was the highest rated presentation of the three-day Summit. It provides a thought-provoking theory of how public relations has pursued an intuitive, author-centric outputs-focussed approach to communication to its detriment, while communication scholars and social scientists have adopted a scientific, audience-centric outcomes-focussed approach and why public relations has to get back on the right road.
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The Need for an Integrated Approach to Measuring Communication Effects
(5,000 words) – by Jim Macnamara FREE


Despite several decades of discussion concerning integrated communication campaigns, each sector of public communication has operated largely independently, developed its own metrics, and paid little attention to inter-textuality – i.e. the multiple sites of exposure to mediated messages on various subjects. This provocative paper, presented to the 2007 Summit on Measurement in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, argues that this fragmented silo approach to measurement has failed to take account of “interdiscursive processes in audience reception” (Curran, 2002, p. 119) and led to duplication of measurement activities, lack of learning from other sectors and, most importantly, anomalous conclusions about the complex DNA of audience impact and effects. It concludes that an integrated approach to measurement, while practically challenging to achieve, is essential to accurately identify what drives awareness, perceptions, attitudes and behaviour.

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Gender and Identity:

Men in the Media: The Manufacture of Contempt
(12,000 words) – by Jim Macnamara AUD$20*


This paper presents a detailed summary of the main findings of PhD research by Dr Jim Macnamara reported in his 2006 book, Media and Male Identity: The Making and Remaking of Men. This analysis of over 2,000 media articles and program segments shows that men and male identity are portrayed in overwhelmingly negative ways and warns of potential negative effects on men’s sense of self-identity and particularly on young boys growing up. This substantial extract includes all charts and tables reporting research data.

See also free articles on this site:

‘Dissing’ Men – The New Gender War
Mum’s the Word of Fatherhood
 

 
 
Craft Activity Survey 
Tell us about your domestic craft activities
 
 
E-Electioneering: Use of New Media in the 2007 Australian Federal Election research study released.
 
 
• Jim Macnamara presents refereed paper at the Australian and New Zealand Communication Association (ANZCA) 2008 conference, Wellington New Zealand